I will start on the subject of Ebola. I received an email from NANDA ( an organization for nursing students, to increase our knowledge and push us to continue our education) explaining in more detail the signs and symptoms of Ebola, as well as the precautions, etc.
I hope this helps with any questions you may have about Ebola or what precautions are now in place to help decrease the spread for you as a nurse/nursing student as well as you as a patient.
Symptoms of Ebola:
•Initial symptoms are nonspecific - may include fever, chills, myalgias, and malaise.
•Patients can progress to develop gastrointestinal symptoms:
–severe watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
–chest pain, shortness of breath, headache or confusion, conjunctival injection, hiccups, seizures, and cerebral edema
•Bleeding not universally present but can manifest later as petechiae, ecchymosis/ bruising, or oozing. Frank hemorrhage less common.
•Some develop diffuse erythematous maculopapular rash that can desquamate.
•Most common symptoms reported during current outbreak:
–loss of appetite (65%)
•Patients with fatal disease develop more severe clinical signs early during infection and die between days 6 - 16 of complications (mean of 7.5 days).
•In non-fatal cases, patients may have fever for several days and improve, around day 6.
•The case fatality proportion in West Africa is about 71%
•Diagnosing Ebola can be difficult at first since early symptoms, such as fever, are
nonspecific to Ebola infection.
•However, if a person has the early symptoms and has had contact with Ebola they should
be isolated and public health professionals notified.
•Samples from the patient can then be collected and tested to confirm infection.
Treatment of Ebola:
•There are no approved treatments available for EVD.
•Clinical management focus - supportive care of complications:
–hypovolemia, electrolyte abnormalities, hematologic abnormalities, refractory shock, hypoxia, hemorrhage, septic shock, multi-organ failure, and DIC.
•Recommended care includes:
–maintenance of blood pressure (with vasopressors if needed)
–maintenance of oxygenation
–treating secondary bacterial infections and pre-existing comorbidities
•Among patients from West Africa, large volumes of intravenous fluids have often been required to correct dehydration due to diarrhea and vomiting.
•Several investigational therapeutics for Ebola virus disease are in development. There are no approved vaccines available for EVD. Several investigational Ebola vaccines are in development, and Phase I trials are underway for some vaccine candidates.
•Baize S. et al. Emergence of Zaire Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea - Prepminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2014 Apr 16. epub
•Feldmann H , Geisbert TW. Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever. Lancet. 2011 Mar 5;377(9768):849-62.
•Fowler RA, Fletcher T, Fischer WA, et al. Caring for Critically Ill Patients with Ebola Virus Disease: Perspectives from West Africa. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug 25. Epub
•Kortepeter MG, Bausch DG, Bray M. Basic Cpnical and Laboratory Features of Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever. J Infect Dis. 2011 Nov;204 Suppl 3:S810-6
•WHO Ebola Response Team. Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa – The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections. N Eng J Med. 2014 Sept 23. Epub